Phar Lap — A Painful Death

Phar Lap easily wins the Melbourne Cup, Australia, November 4, 1930. His closest competitors are Second Wind and Shadow King

Matthew Scully’s book Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy takes the stand that animals are tied to “profound vulnerability” in the hands of man, that when “injured, or abused, animals shriek, squeal, squawk, bark, growl, whinny, and whimper” in their pain and suffering.

Therefore, concludes Scully, animals are sentient, capable of feelings and experiencing pain in conditions similar to those of human suffering.

It is recorded history that (New Zealand born) Australian racehorse Phar Lap moaned hour after hour while lying beside his faithful keeper, Tommy Woodcock, and suffered profoundly until he breathed his last breath two days after the onset of his fatal illness.

Jockey Jimmy Pike aboard Super Horse Phar Lap, by Charles Daniel Pratt


While the results of testing hairs from Phar Lap’s preserved hide described in the chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition on June 7, 2010 still meets with continued debate over Phar Lap’s cause of death, the actual painful, last agony of the Australian champion’s suffering cannot be disputed. Woodcock tearfully described it to his own last dying day.

The great chestnut racehorse, age six, died 16 days after only partially overcoming hoof problems and carrying top weight to win the Agua Caliente Handicap, a prestigious, top-ranked race held in Tijuana, Mexico on March 20, 1932. He passed on April 5, just after 2 p.m. at Menlo Park near San Francisco, where he had been stabled to await his first race in the United States.

Mystery has continued to revolve around the death of Phar Lap even after the June, 2010 report.

In 2000  and in 2005, material written by Geoff Armstrong and Peter Thompson described the assertion that Phar Lap suffered an attack “by an enterotoxin of bacterial origin, a poison, that caused Anterior Enteritis (or more correctly Duodenitis-Proximal jejunitis). This disease syndrome was not identified in the veterinary science literature until the early 1980s, so it never could have been considered as a possible cause of Phar Lap’s death at the time he died.

An article titled “Study Concludes Phar Lap Died of Arsenic Poisoning” appeared July 10, 2010, on page six of the Thoroughbred Times news magazine. It discusses a finding for the demise of Phar Lap as ingested arsenic, quoting a report that states “Phar Lap’s autopsy and pre-death symptoms are consistent with arsenic poisoning and the current study provides strong chemical evidence of a ‘large-quantity arsenic ingestion’ (poisoning).”

Australians faithful to the idea that Phar Lap was purposefully poisoned in America look to the report for validity.

Louis Paul Jones photographed this glass-encased statue with the taxidermy preserved skin of revered Phar Lap for display in the Melbourne Museum.

Believers of the Phar Lap poisoning theory may argue that a real attempt on Phar Lap’s life took place in Australia just before the running of that country’s most famous race, the Melbourne Cup, in 1930. The assassination attempt failed due in part to Woodcock shielding Phar Lap against a wall. A gun was fired at the horse from a moving Studebaker approaching the corner of James and Etna streets in Caulfield as Woodcock, riding a gray pony, led Phar Lap back to his stables at Caulfield race course after a track workout.

Following the incident, it was widely accepted that assassins attempted to eliminate the horse because his winning ways adversely affected the gambling interests of the country.


Much like Seabiscuit’s story in America from the late 1930s into the early ’40s, Phar Lap’s legacy in Australia grew out of a need for a “hero” to lift the spirit of the masses from the plight of economic depression.

The Thai word “pharlap” means “emitting light from the sky”. Phar Lap became that light from the sky in Australia.

A normal race for Big Red, who was 17-hands high, was two miles long, and his victories, a phenomenal 37 from 51 starts, usually were little contested. He was the Super Horse, bred in New Zealand, bought and trained in Australia by Harry R. Telford, and sold to American David J. Davis.

Early on in Phar Lap’s training, Telford was frustrated by the horse’s stubbornness. It was Woodcock, Big Red’s young devoted companion, and Telford’s stable hand, who coaxed Phar Lap into racing competitively. The horses’s eventual victories provided Telford with his life-long dream, the funds to purchase and train a genuine stable of racing Thoroughbreds.

When Davis voiced his desire to race Phar Lap in America, Telford refused to agree to accompany his champion. He told Davis he wouldn’t leave his large stable of horses in training. Instead, he agreed to name Woodcock his assistant trainer and send him with Phar Lap to San Francisco.

Woodcock and Phar Lap traveled by boat to New Zealand, then to California, arriving in San Francisco on January 15. From there, Woodcock drove Phar Lap’s horse van to and from Mexico for Big Red’s first race off Australian shores, the Agua Caliente Handicap. The race was considered a prep to his American debut.

And it was Woodcock who spent the remainder of his life pining for the loss of “Bobby”, the nickname he used for his remarkable racing companion.

In a stretch from March 1 of 1930 through March 20 of 1932, Phar Lap won an astounding 32 of 35 racing starts. Modern Thoroughbreds aren’t asked to race with such frequency, so only a handful of others in world racing history ever have equaled, or surpassed, Phar Lap’s record.

Australians today still mourn Phar Lap’s premature death.

Photos courtesy of

//Additional Resources: Phar Lap, by Geoff Armstrong and Peter Thompson, 2003 Edition, Allen & Unwin; Melbourne Cup 1930, by Geoff Armstrong and Peter Thompson, 2005, A Sue Hines Book, Allen & Unwin; Phar Lap the People’s Champion, DVD, 2001 Raceplay Video (Woodcock-Telford-Davis interviews)//



The Say-Hey Kid


Willie Howard Mays, Jr., the “Say-Hey Kid”, did all the things in the game of baseball that the greatest players of all-time would do, and more. He was a gentleman off the field, as well.

Born on May 6, 1931, Mays stepped to the plate for his first Major League baseball game in 1951 for the New York Giants, and he retired after 22 stunning seasons. He made what is considered the greatest catch ever in the World Series in 1954, turning his back to a blast off the bat of Vic Wertz to grab the ball over his shoulder while still on the run for the long, long out in center field. The famous catch still rates as one of the best ever made in the sport; some say it’s the best ever.

Willie Howard Mays, Jr., photographed by William C. Greene

The greatest players of all-time are the fellows who could hit for average, club impressive home runs, and get on base when needed, whether by slugging, slicing a single, or sacrificing their at bat in crucial situations. The greatest players were blessed with great arms capable of throwing out a runner speeding toward an extra base. These players altered defenses, stole bases, fielded their positions in Gold Glove style, and brought groans of despair to the lips of great pitchers.

Giants Manager Leo Durocher gave the “greatest player ever” nod to Mays. “What can I say about Willie Mays after I say he’s the greatest player any of us has ever seen?” Durocher stated. Mays was a member of the (20th Century) All-Century Team gathered together over two decades ago, and he garnered the most votes for best ever player.

A local city park baseball diamond

In all of baseball’s 20th Century history, the “greatest players” were typically great in all categories of the game. Statistically speaking, the only player of that era who outdid Mays in most of the recorded stats categories was “The Georgia Peach”, Detroit Tiger star Tyrus Raymond Cobb, who played 24 years in the Majors. Cobb’s birth date is January 24, 1886. He played from 1905 to 1928.

Mays’ Career Stats:
Games played: 2,992; At bats: 10,881; Runs scored: 2,062; Hits: 3,283; Doubles: 523; Triples: 140; Home runs: 660; Runs batted in: 1,903; Bases on balls: 1,464; Intentional bases on balls: 192; Strikeouts: 1,526; Batting average: .302; Stolen bases: 338; Caught stealing bases: 103.

Mays won two Most Valuable Player awards many years apart, in 1954 and in 1965, proving the durability of his many skills. He didn’t play baseball for most of 1952 and missed the entire season in 1953, as he served in the U.S. Army during those periods.

In ten different seasons, Mays hit over 35 homers. He won the stolen base title four times, was sixth, or higher, in MVP voting in 12 different seasons, and captured the Gold Glove award 12 years running from 1957 to 1968.

Cobb’s Career Stats Line:
GP-3034; AB-11434; R-2246; H-4189; D-724; T-295; HR-117; RBI-1938; BB-1249; IBB-not kept; SO-357; BA-.366; SB-897; CS-178.

(Note: Cobb’s stats very slightly from these retrieved from the official “The 2005 Baseball Encyclopedia”, and those recorded in the 2005 volume entitled “Cooperstown Hall of Fame Players”, Publications International, Ltd., Illinois.)

The most incredible stats comparison for Cobb to Mays are the few times Cobb struck out, 357, compared to his at bats — 11,434, and his stolen base percentage. He was thrown out only 178 times and successfully stole a base 892 times in a feared, spikes high manner.

Mays was a better slugger, by far, and he had more skill for skill, all around raw talent.

Cobb, who also played the outfield, received 222 of 226 votes cast in baseball’s first Hall of Fame entry election held in 1936. His career batting average is the highest ever achieved. Twelve times, he won the season’s batting title. But he had no home run swing, nor the grace and skill of Mays in fielding his position.

Others Who Excelled

One can argue for the Boston Red Sox’s exquisite hitter Ted Williams as baseball’s best batsman ever. His knowledge of the art of hitting was his alone, and he is one of the few players to twice win the batting Triple Crown — most home runs, most RBIs, and best batting average in a single season.

Jackie Roosevelt Robinson was a phenomenal player who acquired the added task of breaking baseball’s color barrier as a Brooklyn Dodger. He was less of a hitter than Williams, but a better fielder.

And, of course, many believe “The Babe”, George Herman Ruth was the greatest player of all-time. He was the charismatic who became far-and-away the game’s best slugger as a New York Yankee while also claiming fame as a pitcher in his early years with the Boston Red Sox.

“The Yankee Clipper”, Joe DiMaggio, a three-time MVP, still holds the consecutive games with a hit record — 56. That streak barely has been approached since DiMaggio’s time as a player.

Hall of Famers all, these players gave fans what they wanted to see — skills of the game and winning results.

However, measuring from all skill sets of baseball and every statistical category recorded for the sport, the “Say-Hey Kid” hits an all-time grand slam as the best ever of the diamond’s best.

And his humble answer to that claim when the 20th Century’s All-Century Team was chosen was, “Say-Hey!”


Image Credits:
Top and Bottom Photos courtesy of
Photo of Willie Howard Mays, Jr. compliments of
Three Photos of baseball the fields from the personal and copyrighted collection of Barbara Anne Helberg

Observing the 2006 Preakness Stakes

Every so often, a Thoroughbred racehorse comes along as one who is charismatic, beautiful, and mystically connected. Barbaro was such a champion, ridden by Edgar Prado, trained by Michael Matz, and owned by the engaging couple Roy and Gretchen Jackson.


Anticipation at Pimlico Race Course

In Baltimore, Maryland, at Pimlico Race Course on May 20, 2006, a crowd of over 100,000 tingling with Triple Crown title anticipation watched the every move of a lovely dark brown colt named Barbaro as the Kentucky Derby champion prepped for the 131st running of the Preakness Stakes. The anticipation was for Barbaro to win the Preakness, the second of the three jewels of the American Triple Crown races, and to go to the Belmont Stakes three weeks later to attempt to become the nation’s twelfth ever Triple Crown champion.

By this time, every horse racing fan knew the story of Barbaro and his talented connections. A Dynaformer son, the sculpted Barbaro was unbeaten in six trips to the starting gate, and that record included his victory in the Kentucky Derby two weeks previously.

Barbaro’s owners, with thirty years of respectability in Thoroughbred racing, had been looking for that first Derby winner and had found him. Barbaro’s rider, a skilled, quiet jockey who had won his first Derby in his seventh attempt to pin down the Run for the Roses, never had won the Preakness. Barbaro’s trainer, a celebrated Olympian Equestrian who earlier had reached hero status by rescuing three children from their crashed, burning airliner, had switched to Thoroughbred conditioning as a profession. He had his first Derby winner in Barbaro as he hoped for Preakness glory, as well.

Were the racing gods lined up, finally, to present the nation’s first Triple Crown Champion since Affirmed in 1978? With a Preakness win, Barbaro would be just the Belmont Stakes away from TC immortality.

The Jacksons, pleasant and smiling, received the best wishes of friends and family as the Preakness field approached the starting gate on May 20.

Prado had dedicated the Derby win to his deceased mother, who twice had witnessed a Derby day that included her son, but who had died four months previous to Prado’s first Derby victory aboard Barbaro.

Matz, who had asked Prado to ride Barbaro more than a year after the jockey and trainer had parted company uncomfortably, was greatly anticipating a seventh straight win for his Derby champ with Prado in the saddle.

Barbaro Breaks Through the Gate

Prado had moved to the top of jockey ranks with the retirements of the Sport of Kings’ best riders, Gary Stevens, Jerry Bailey, and Pat Day. All were Hall of Fame jockeys.

Beneath Prado, in starting gate No. 6, Barbaro twitched.

Then, inexplicably, Barbaro bolted forward, breaking through the barrier before the gates swung open to start the race.

A hundred thousand people gasped. Most never had witnessed such an event. What did it mean? What was wrong with Barbaro? How could flesh and blood crash through iron without consequences?

But Barbaro was easily re-gated, seemingly calmed. He was set. Prado’s heart pounded, he said later after the race.


Barbaro Breaks Down

The legitimate break from the gate sent Prado and Barbaro flying from No. 6. But less than a hundred yards up the track, the Triple Crown was lost.

Barbaro’s right rear leg visibly flashed sideways in an awkward strike. Prado glanced down. He’d heard the snap. He pulled up on the colt’s reins, stopping his next stride. For Barbaro, the race was over.

Prado cradled the colt’s leg until help arrived. Then he approached Matz, who had run full bore from the grandstand onto the racing surface, and the two men hugged on the historic Pimlico track, unable to contain tears for Barbaro.

Barbaro Loses His Battle for Life

The Preakness field rushed on. Bernardini won the race witnesses wouldn’t remember. All eyes remained on Barbaro, and the ambulance that trailed him away from the race track.

Eight months later, his horrifically fractured leg partially healed, Barbaro lost his fight against a stalled horse’s worst enemy — laminitis, a painful disease that attacks the connective tissue, or laminae of the hoof. Two of Barbaro’s hooves were infected.

Too fragile and crippled to battle on, Barbaro was euthanized on January 29, 2007.

His end came at the George D. Widener Hospital for Large Animals at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine’s New Bolton Center, a formidable name many had memorized for the sake of a Thoroughbred champion.

Images courtesy of


20th Century Golf — The Early Heroes

Terminology, improved playing equipment, and better landscaping of courses hallmarked the progress of the sport of golf in the 20th Century. Great golfers such as the Morrises, Robert Ferguson, the Parkes, John T. Taylor, and Harry Vardon (who played in the first 40 years of the British Open) helped push the sport into the 20th Century and form a new era of a more modern game.


In 1930, the term Grand Slam was used for the first time to describe golf heroics. Sweet-swinging Bobby Jones won four tournaments that year — the U.S. Open, the British Open, the U.S. Amateur, and the British Amateur. He was the linkster of the era.

When Jones retired from competitive play at the age of 28 — he never turned professional — the term Grand Slam was also retired.

It was not until 1960, when Arnold Palmer was the U.S. Open and the Masters champion, as well as placed the one-stroke runner-up to Kel Nagle in that year’s British Open at St. Andrews course in Scotland, that the term Grand Slam was revived. Since then, Grand Slam is the term used for a golfer’s victory in the Masters, the U.S. Open, the British Open, and the PGA (Professional Golfers Association) Championship.)

No golfer has ever accomplished this single season Grand Slam. A career Grand Slam refers to a golfer’s achievement in winning all four of the major tournaments at some time in his entire career.


Jones was the architect of the Masters tournament, founding the event and its site in 1934. It is annually played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, USA, and has become the kick-off event to the season’s four majors.

Including the amateur championships, Jones triumphed against professionals in 13 prestigious tournaments. He is number three all-time in such wins behind only the Golden Bear — Jack Nicklaus’ 20 wins — and Tiger Woods’ 17 victories. Nicklaus won two Amateurs and Woods garnered three amateur championships. (Note*: On the early 2019 tour, Tiger Woods accomplishment an unprecedented career reversal to win the Masters, giving him a total of 18 major wins counting amateur championships.)

Horton Smith won the first Masters against Craig Wood, scoring 284, in 1934.

Jones and Walter Hagen were the most significant golfers of the 1920s. Hagen is fourth on the all-time list of majors won with 11, which includes no Amateur tournament titles. Combined, Jones and Hagen won six U.S. Open championships, which made that tournament the showcase of the United States Golf Association through its early years.

The first American to win the U.S. Open was John McDermott. He accomplished the feat in 1911 at Chicago Golf Club, then followed up in 1912 with a second straight win at Country Club of Buffalo, New York.

From a player’s standpoint, the PGA will always be dominated by Hagen’s four straight titles in the tournament from 1924 through 1927.

The first PGA was played in 1916. Jim Barnes claimed victory over Jock Hutchison at Siwanoy Country Club in Bronxville, New York.

The U.S. Open began in 1895. Its first 20th Century winner was Vardon in 1900, who won over Taylor at Chicago Golf Club, Wheaton, Illinois. The British Open winner that year was Taylor. He won the title over Vardon at St. Andrews.

In the beginning of the British Open, not many American golfers traveled overseas after World War II to play in the tournament. Sam Snead in 1946 and Ben Hogan in 1953 were notable entrants. They were two of America’s best golfers of their era.

When the very charismatic Palmer followed Snead and Hogan’s participation by entering the 1960 British Open, the tournament received the “American boost” that catapulted it into a popular event in the big four cycle.

These early golfers helped forge the way in their sport’s history. Most of them can be found in the Top Twenty of golfing greats.

Images courtesy of



No College Hall of Fame for Ealey

Joe Montana readies himself for a pass.

College sports support a College Football Hall of Fame to specifically recognize athletes who enjoyed accomplished college sports careers before going on to pursue professions in sports, or elsewhere.

Amazingly, a dream list of quarterbacks who played professionally — Joe Namath, Joe Montana, Brady Quinn, Tyrone Wheatley, Eli Manning, Bernie Kosar, and Drew Brees — as well as (perhaps lesser known) Chuck Ealey of Portsmouth, Ohio, have not been, and likely never will be, elected to the College Football Hall of Fame.

One modified rule governing that exclusive club prevents these superb QBs from attaining college hall of fame status.

Undrafted and Unrecognized 

On January 6, 2011, Ealey turned 61, and the gridiron man referred to as “The Wizard of Oohs and Aahs” said goodbye to another year that would exclude him from the College Football Hall of Fame. The University of Toledo’s quarterback from 1969 through 1971, Ealey achieved a singular record of 53 straight wins and no defeats in high school and college combined. Yet the black athlete went undrafted by the National Football League, and he can’t get into the College Football Hall of Fame.

In the College Football Hall of Fame 

In the Hall are Chuck Ealey’s playing contemporaries: The Ohio State University’s Rex Kern (27-2, 1968-1970); Jim Plunkett of Stanford (22-8-2, 1968-1970); and Archie Manning (22-10-1; 1968-1970.)

The UT Rockets won three Mid-American Conference (MAC) championships and three bowl games in their three unbeaten seasons with Ealey at the quarterback position.

No Ballot, No Election 

Ealey couldn’t get on the ballot for election to the hall of fame because of a rule implemented long after he finished his college playing days. The standard says a player must have been “named an All-American by an accepted major organization”, according to a July, 2010 Toledo Blade (newspaper) report by Matt Markey entitled “Undefeated Quarterback Still Denied Final Victory.” The article also quoted Steve Hatchell, the President & Chief Executive Officer of the National Football Foundation and the College Football Hall of Fame.

At the time, Hatchell offered this observation for Markey’s article: “…I understand he (Ealey) was a terrific player… I was in college at the time… but these lines (rules) have been drawn up, and we have to be faithful to it.”

Ealey Was Named to No Avail 

Ealey actually was named a First Team All-American by The Football News. Unfortunately, the News was not an approved entity at the time. And, sadly enough, it was later recognized as such, too late for Ealey’s case.

Markey’s article related that many voices were heard on working out a fix for Ealey and others excluded from the College Football Hall of Fame. Some suggestions included:

A) How about allowing every quarterback who goes undefeated to be nominated for the hall? (This was the suggestion of Dr. Jack Taylor, Associate Professor Emeritus of Ethnic Studies at Bowling Green State University, Ohio.)

B) Why not allow anyone who makes the Top Ten Heisman Trophy nomination list eligible for the hall ballot? (Ealey finished eighth in Heisman voting in 1971.)

“If they can’t fix that, it’s a shame,” former Purdue University Head Football Coach and Toledo native Joe Tiller was quoted in Markey’s article.

Ealey Says Records Aren’t Heroic 

When interviewed for the Markey article, Ealey appeared at the age of 61 not to lend too much importance to his not being placed on the hall ballot.

He said he believed records are not heroic and that education is what allows one to be successful, according to statements in Markey’s article.

Ealey played in the Canadian Football League before becoming a regional director for an investing company in Ontario.

“The Wizard of Oohs and Aahs” graduated from Portsmouth, Ohio’s Notre Dame High School and attended UT on a sports scholarship. In 1972, he graduated UT with a degree in Business Administration and Business Economics.

Perhaps, as Ealey claimed, records are not heroic, but they do influence others on visceral levels. Nonetheless, Ealey’s example of a life lived with excellence and humbleness has its impact, as well.

Photo from the cover of the book “Not Till the Fat Lady Sings — The Most Dramatic Sports Finishes of All Time”, 2003, Triumph Books, Chicago, Illinois


MLB ASG Becomes A Second Home Run Derby — Kids at Home With the Stars


Old-fashioned logos and posters and a new game format meshed beautifully in the 2018 MLB All-Star game to give fans a taste of the past and the technology of the present.

In the 2018 Major League Baseball All-Star Game July 17 played in Washington D.C. at Nationals Park, only one run of 13 resulted from a hit not referred to as a home run. Home runs pushed runs across the plate for tie scores and an extra inning, in which more home runs decided the final outcome.

This, even though pitchers combined for a total of 25 strike-outs, including 15 in the initial 4-1/2 innings. It was feast, or famine, as American and National league hitters put together an All-Star game record 10 home runs. Previously, the All-Star classic had produced six homers in 1951, 1954, and 1971.

The evening before, a record total of 226 home runs were put up in the Home Run Derby competition, won by home stadium favorite Bryce Harper of the Washington Nationals.

Stats, photos, clever poster-like screen shots and speaking live-mic to players in the field as the game progressed was a hit with fans and the participating gamers. From broadcasters to ball boys, the two-night presentation was keenly enjoyed.

During both nights of action, youngsters in their own uniforms joined the towels and Gator Aide crews (Home Run Derby) and the introductory ceremonies (All-Star game.)

A number of the Derby hitters and the starting All-Stars made the kids part of their own experience on each of the two nights, speaking with them and making them feel right at home.

Young ones fist-bumping their way through the stars standing along the chalk lines of first and third bases before the All-Star game started was sweet to watch.

A homer from the Reds’ Scooter Gennett tied the game in the ninth, then the 10th frame featured back-to-back home runs by Astros Alex Bregman and George Springer. Bregman’s tie-breaker landed him the MVP award. J. A. Happ came on to finish off the National League hitters in the bottom of the 10th, and the American League walked away with its sixth straight All-Star game victory.

The two leagues were incredibly tied before the game started, dead-locked at 43 wins apiece (with two ties) in the 88 years the classic had been played. The American League win gives it the home field advantage in the World Series this Fall, while it also took a 44-43-2 lead in the classic overall.

Photo courtesy of


Twos Threes and Fours — TC Trivia


Triple Crown Trivia Challenge: Can you fill in the blanks in the next paragraphs?

In decades past, American Triple Crown winners in Thoroughbred racing came in bunches, two, three, or even four, per decade.

This decade, the trend has repeated itself, as (a)_____ became the second horse in four years to win the coveted Triple Crown, a feat now completed by just (b)_____ horses in the history of the Sport of Kings. American Pharoah turned the trick in (c)_____ .

But the greatest of them all, Secretariat, still holds the (d)_____ record for all three races of the Triple Crown. He accomplished that in (e)_____ . His Belmont Stakes was a (f)_____ length triumph.

Match these Triple Crown horses with their correct years of victory:
2018 ——————– Citation
1935 ——————– Omaha
1941 ——————– War Admiral
1943 ——————– American Pharoah
1973 ——————– Seattle Slew
1977 ——————– Affirmed
1930 ——————– Secretariat
1946 ——————– Whirlaway
1937 ——————– Assault
1948 ——————– Gallant Fox
2015 ——————– Count Fleet
1978 ——————– Justify

(A) — American Pharoah was named through a contest held for that purpose, and the name American Pharoah was accepted as misspelled.
(B) — The only father-son combination who both won the Triple Crown were War Admiral and Assault.


Blanks = (a)-Justify; (b)-12; (c)-2015; (d)-speed; (e)-1973; (f)-31

1930 ———- Gallant Fox
1935 ———- Omaha
1937 ———- War Admiral
1941 ———- Whirlaway
1943 ———- Count Fleet
1946 ———- Assault
1948 ———- Citation
1973 ———- Secretariat
1977 ———- Seattle Slew
1978 ———- Affirmed
2015 ———- American Pharoah
2018 ———- Justify

True or False = (A) — True; (B) — False; Gallant Fox and Omaha were the only father-son combination to each win the Triple Crown


Book Cover Photo from the personal book collection of Barbara Anne Helberg; Walter Farley’s 1952 edition of The Black Stallion’s Filly, Random House, Inc., New York, NY